New horizons in physics
Let us assume an existence of homogenous formation space-time-matter, shortly STM.
Illustrative formula but not mathematical: STM = S + TM = T + SM = M + ST [spacetimematter = space + timematter = time + spacematter = matter + spacetime]
M + ST is concerning macroscopic conditions. If - M, + ST matter loses then spacetime profit, it is distance - perspective, objects decrease with distance - ordinary contraction. If + M, - ST matter profit then spacetime loses, it is bringing closer - perspective, objects increase in progress of bringing closer - ordinary dilatation.
S + TM is concerning microscopic conditions. If - TM, + S timematter loses then space profit, it leads to waves and fields. If - S, + TM space loses then timematter profit, it leads to particles.
2. Quantum gravity
How to build new theory I have shown in my article from March of 2006:
"we must understand that modern quantum mechanics (which was started with idea of quantums in 1900 and 1905 year) is in its fundaments, only mechanics of particles and electromagnetism. Two main points of starting of quantum mechanics, solution of problem of thermal radiance, and next solution of photoelectric phenomenon, both refer only to problem of particles of electromagnetic waves.
If we are trying to express gravitation correctly we must go out beyond limitations that are accepting at the ground of electromagnetism (which were created old theory of quantums and its descendant, quantum mechanics, in one hand, it was a Planck's constant value, and first theory of relativity of Einstein, at the other hand, it was constant value of speed of light) and designate new field for phenomenon of gravitation. We must use different measurement for gravitation and different measurement for electromagnetism." Also in this article I have proposed new borders for gravitation.
We can say that there is, very much smaller than length of Planck, size right for quantums of gravitation, it is a new base very small size value is about 10^-65 m. Gravitons are built closely to space. These are the basics of the Quantum Gravity (The last two sentences are from the year 2022).
3. Galactical model of subquark particles
Electrons, quarks and gluons possess internal structure, consist of quadrillion of particles of size about 10^-35 m [they correspond with photons], these then from quadrillion of particles about 10^-50 m, these then from quadrillion of particles about 10^-65 m [they correspond with gravitons]. To confirm legitimacy of assuming of hypothesis of internal structure of smallest from hitherto known structural subatomic particles as electrons, quarks and gluons it can be invoked the theory of science created by A.Comte (see after text Comte's Theory of Science).
diagram. Galatical model
Every following field uses in a large extent from previous, sociology from biology - theory of evolution, biology from chemistry - an example biochemistry, chemistry from physics - even if structure of atom and periodic table, physics from astronomy. Invoking astronomy it can be in physics reach eg. conception of existence of atoms and their internal structure - stars, planets, planetary system. It can be also reach models applied in conception of subquark particles and QG. It is galactical, cosmical and supercosmical model. Mystery of dark matter can be explained in this way that preonical particles possess mass.
Mass of rubbish fills present physics, for example - cosmical branes giving beginning to big bang and creating other universes, multidimensionality, strings existing in 10 dimensions, parallel universes, microblisters, hyperspace and so on. They are products of exuberant speculation completely detached from reality.
And several words about atomistic paradigm of Natural Sciences. Against claims of such fools as Popper atomism does not descend from metaphysical speculations. Democritus took over this view from Hindus during his travels in the east, conception of atoms existed there at the very latest about VIII century BC, and was based on paranormal perceptions of yogis - a source could be only paranormal activity, but for sure not philosophical speculation, in Europe spherical atoms appeared not before XIX century AD.
5. Solution of the problem of Wave-particle duality
One of the biggest puzzles is the problem of how light in classical physics can be a wave, while in quantum physics it is in the form of photons or particles. The light ray is a wave but the energy transmits matter in the form of photons. Thus, it can also be assumed that any other particle, for example a moving electron, can be a wave of matter. The existence of matter waves was confirmed in 1927. Also in 1927 the uncertainty principle was formulated, stating that it is impossible to measure the position and momentum of a particle with unlimited accuracy. The issues considered are related to the problem of wave-particle duality.
Wave-particle duality, the property of matter, for example electrons, in that in some conditions the wave character is manifested, and in others corpuscular character. Wave properties are revealed by diffraction and interference phenomena. Classical physics could not explain, for example, the photoelectric phenomenon, the adoption of the concept of a discrete radiation structure enabled solving this difficulty. Electron diffraction has shown that molecules have wave properties in addition to their corpuscular properties. Current theory assumes that all molecules have both wave and corpuscular character. This fact has been checked not only for elementary particles but also for composite particles such as atoms. Recognition of the dual nature of matter is the basis of modern physics.
So far, considered duality remains a mystery, this is my explanation of this enigma. The problem of wave-particle duality is in fact a problem of trichotomy, where the third state are fields. At the explanation of this problem it is possible to invoke phenomenon of three states of concentration of the matter, the solid state, liquid and gas. This phenomenon determines the model for the problem of trichotomy in the microworld. Three states of concentration of the matter it is possible to implement by the fourth state which is the vacuum. Contractual condensation of the vacuum gives the highest state of concentration, gas. The further condensation gives the liquid state of concentration, still further the solid state of concentration. So the vacuum condenses into fields, fields condense into waves, waves condense into particles. The formation of particles directly from the fields corresponds to gas resublimation. These considerations make for the conclusion that the base for three states of the microworld is the vacuum. So particles, waves and fields are just a condensed form of vacuum (space). On the ground of STM (see paragraph 1) we can reach explanation where particles, waves and fields can be brought to the space.
6. Theory of everything (TOE)
Two theories which modern physics is based on is the general theory of relativity (GR) and quantum mechanics (QM). GR refers to great phenomena in cosmic scales, where gravity works. QM refers to phenomena in microscale, relates to particles and interactions. Years of research have shown that these two theories work well in experiments. On the other hand they are incompatible with each other. This inconsistency is revealed in very much small scale, Planck scale. To solve it, one should discover the theory showing a deeper reality, it will be the TOE, explaining all phenomena in the universe.
Among ancient theories, apart from atomism, we can find another one equally useful theory created by the Greek sophist Gorgias who lived in the 5th century BC, which turns out to be helpful in searching for the TOE. In the work On Non-Existence we can find the first thesis of this theory: nothing exists. Well, the ultimate basis for everything is nothingness.
Regarding paragraph 3, a more careful analysis of the galactical model leads to the conclusion that there are more types of particles of the right type. Types of stars, by supergiants, giants, dwarfs, all the way to the black star (black hole, see paragraph 11) would correspond to the types of these particles. Cosmical model analysis leads to similar conclusions, where the types of particles would correspond to the appropriate types of galaxies. At the end, the analysis of the supercosmical model leads to similar conclusions.
In addition, it can be assumed that there are types of photon-like particles and corresponding waves with significantly higher speeds than the speed of light. So there are non-electromagnetic waves far above the speed of light.
Popper's Falsificationism seems to be wrong because the theory tests always strive to confirm it or confirmation and not refute it. So this concept is not unreliable with the actual way science is practiced. From the point of view of scientific research, striving to refute the theory seems to be a kind of nonsense and is something illogical.
For example, General Relativity found confirmation in the Mercury orbit anomalies that Newton's theory could not explain. This confirmation is treated as proof of the validity of the theory. Of course, you can give more examples.
Knowledge is inherently uncertain, as the ancient skeptics have already demonstrated. Therefore, science must use invalid inferences. Induction inferences is one of the basic types of inference of empirical sciences. These are uncertain inferences. Deductive inferences belong to the field of formal sciences such as mathematics and logic. On the basis of empirical science, the use of deduction is not meaningfully possible. By the way, ancient skeptics have also undermined the credibility of the deduction.
Regarding paragraph 1, thus, objects that move away decrease and objects that move closer enlarge. This can be called an ordinary contraction and dilatation, respectively. This ordinary phenomenon confirms the validity of the assumption about the unity of space and matter, and therefore also due to the concept of space-time on the unity of time, space and matter.
Regarding paragraph 5, we are dealing here with densification by jumps, where we obtain successive states from vacuum to atomic matter. Of course, in modeling these processes, one can use the sigmoidal model, which I have used extensively in other studies. The sigmoidal model records these jumps. I would like to add that these jumps are quantitative and not qualitative, according to the principle that any qualitative change is in fact a quantitative change.
11. Black holes, Big-Bang
On the basis of the supercosmical model of subquark particles, we can obtain an explanation of the mystery of black holes. The use of quantization produces specific results. Alleged black hole is a kind of black star - with size about a star for our galaxy - consisting from condensate of small particles corresponding with gravitons. Black because does not let go photons. More suitable name than black hole is for this object name black star. So called event horizon is identical with its surface, so called Schwarzschild radius relates to its real radius. Inside the black star in the center of our galaxy a tunnel opens which leads in to the core of a distant galaxy.
The theory of the black star is justified by the fact that it logically complements the sequence of stars, including white dwarfs, neutron stars, strange stars, preon stars, up to a black star.
I should add also that primeval object which was a beginning of Universe had size of several light yeras - about size of the distance to one of the nearby stars, and we should call it primeval black hyperstar. A model of primeval explosion can be an explosion of supernova. An instability of hyperstar can be caused for exceeding of a certain threshold, a certain limit of mass/size analogous to Chandrasekhar limit for supernovas (I created the black star and primeval black hyperstar theory in 2012, only originally black star without a tunnel and a hyperstar the size of a small galaxy).
12. Antigravity Drive
Antigravitons or antiparticles of gravitons can be used in the construction of an antigravity drive because they probably generate antigravity. The propulsion of the antigravity vehicle will be a miniature anti black star, built from antiparticles to particles at the level of gravitons, that is, on the order of the magnitude of 10^-65 m. So, visions of flying cars from science fiction movies can be put into practice.
In 2015 Japanese scientists sent 1.8 kilowatts of electricity using microwaves over a distance of 55 meters. Also Japanese scientists from JAXA (Japanese Space Exploration Agency) assume that around 2040 it will be possible to send electricity from Earth's orbit. What I would like to note is the fact that in the distant future it will be possible to send electricity directly from the Sun through wireless channels.
In the first generation of particles, space changes state and creates matter. These particles are actually made of space, just space in an altered state. As they belong to this first generation of particles, gravitons retain a certain affinity with pure space. They have an attractive charge and affect the space by bending it. These are the basics of the Quantum Gravity. This is the first remark.
The second remark is that particles much faster than photons (see paragraph 7) are related to the cosmic model and sizes in the order of 10^-50 m.
The third remark is that quarks, according to the galactical model, are made of particles that correspond to the black star at the center of the galaxy.
Gregory Podgorniak, Poland
about the author, My name is Gregory Podgorniak (brn. 01.1977, Szczecinek, West Pomerania, Poland). I am working on field of natural as well as social sciences. During philosophical studies at Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznan (1996-1999) I was actively act in student scientific organisation, got a scientific scholarship, and one from my articles titled Circulus vitiosus and fourfold petitio principii in the system of Descartes was published in Humanistic Drafts of Publishing House of Humaniora Foundation in Poznan, no. 6, 1998. Unfortunately certain fate events made impossible to me continuing studies to master's and later doctor's degree. Thence I was forced to be content only with a title of bachelor.
Thanks to deep and penetrating researchings I was able to establish indisputably some number of my past incarnations reaching of ancient period, these data are certain, these incarnations are: Auguste Comte (1798-1857) French philosopher and sociologist, Edme Mariotte (1620-1684) French physicist and meteorologist, Bodhidharma (5th or 6th century) buddhist patriarch, Aenesidemus (1 st century BC) Greek sceptical philosopher, Arcesilaus (315-241 BC) Greek sceptical philosopher, Gorgias (485-380 BC) Greek sophist.
email contact: email@example.com